Technology blog::Life hacks::Linux::Hardware::Gaming

Apache Administration on Linux

Get that web server working!

By , 20th July 2010 in Linux

A few quick tips and cheat sheets for administering apache on a Linux server.

Restart Apache on Linux

You can restart the Apache web server by entering the following command:

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart


Change the Apache DocumentRoot

Website configs are stored within /etc/apache2/sites-available/ and a symbolic link is created within /etc/apache2/sites-enabled. Generally you store all your website configs in sites-available and create/remove links in sites-enabled as required.

sudo pico /etc/apache2/sites-available/default

Change the document root (default is /var/www)

Restart Apache for changes to take effect.


Adding Virtual Hosts

To add virtual hosts to Apache, all you need to do is create a config in /etc/apache2/sites-available/.

The config files should look similar to this:

        DocumentRoot /usr/www/path/to/files

To enable the new site run:

sudo a2ensite <config name>

To disable a site run:

sudo a2dissite <config name>

The next thing to do is to enable virtual hosts in your Apache configuration. The simplest way to do this is to create a file called /etc/apache2/conf.d/virtual.conf and include the following content in it:

#  We're running multiple virtual hosts.
NameVirtualHost *


Enable mod_headers on Apache

For customization of HTTP request and response headers, you should enable mod_headers on Apache.

sudo a2enmod headers


Increase PHP File Upload Size

The default PHP installation will restrict you to a maximum of 2 MB however there are many instances this needs to be increased. This can be done by modifying the PHP.ini file.

sudo pico /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini

There are two settings to be changed. Locate and modify the following lines.

upload_max_filesize = 2M
post_max_size = 8M

You will need to restart Apache for changes to take effect.


Installing Xdebug

The Xdebug extension helps you debugging your script by providing a lot of valuable debug information.

This can be quickly installed in Ubuntu using the following command:

sudo aptitude install php5-xdebug

You can verify successful installation by calling:

php -v

If successful you should see something like the following:

PHP 5.3.2-1ubuntu4.2 with Suhosin-Patch (cli) (built: May 13 2010 20:01:00)
Copyright (c) 1997-2009 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2010 Zend Technologies
    with Xdebug v2.0.5, Copyright (c) 2002-2008, by Derick Rethans

For more information, please see this article which also covers using XDebug to analyse PHP performance.

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